1947: the Nuremberg Code

August 20, 1947 – This was the day when the judges of the international Nuremberg Court gave their verdict in the “Doctors Trial” against Nazi doctors who had conducted euthanasia killings or gruesome medical experiments with concentration camp prisoners. Several of the 23 defendants came off with acquittal or a prison term, but 7 of them got the death penalty.

As one out of these 7 worst ones, let’s highlight SS doctor Karl Gebhardt, who was 49 at the time of the verdict. This photo shows him in 1936 on the grounds of his Hohenlychen clinic:

Karl Gebhardt

In the course of wartime experiments with new antibiotics (sulfonamide) our kind doctor Gebhardt had hundreds of concentration camp inmates deliberately wounded and then infected.

To simulate battlefield wounds he had female prisoners shot in ways that were not yet lethal right away; he had the bones of male prisoners broken with a heavy hammer. Things like wood splinters or pus solutions were pressed into the wounds to cause inflammation. Most of his involuntary “research subjects” died after terrible sufferings.

On June 2, 1948 (less than a year after the death verdict) Gebhardt and the six others were executed by hanging in the Bavarian Landsberg Prison.

Nuremberg Code

During this Nuremberg Doctors Trial, some of the accused had tried to defend themselves by saying there was no formal rule differentiating between legal and illegal medical research methods. The judges had no option but to recognize this argument, although they were able to condemn most defendants on other grounds.

To address the legal gap, the verdict also introduced the Nuremberg Code stating 10 essential criteria for future medical research using human subjects.

Many countries came to accept this code as the basic legal requirement to be met in any medical experiments with human beings. For example, indirectly (via the so-called Helsinki Declaration) it was integrated in the United States Department of Health regulations.

Here is a very brief summary of this still-valid 1947 Nuremberg Code:


  1. Required is the voluntary, well-informed, understanding consent of the human subject in a full legal capacity.
  2. The experiment should aim at positive results for society that cannot be procured in some other way.
  3. It should be based on previous knowledge (like, an expectation derived from animal experiments) that justifies the experiment.
  4. The experiment should be set up in a way that avoids unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injuries.
  5. It should not be conducted when there is any reason to believe that it implies a risk of death or disabling injury.
  6. The risks of the experiment should be in proportion to (that is, not exceed) the expected humanitarian benefits.
  7. Preparations and facilities must be provided that adequately protect the subjects against the experiment’s risks.
  8. The staff who conduct or take part in the experiment must be fully trained and scientifically qualified.
  9. The human subjects must be free to immediately quit the experiment at any point when they feel physically of mentally unable to go on.
  10. Likewise, the medical staff must stop the experiment at any point when they observe that continuation would be dangerous.


Why is this 1947 Nuremberg Code an item here, in the history of mental health? Because it was, and still is, a bit problematic in a mental health research setting. Especially with respect to the all-important point 1.

As an example, take the not-uncommon scenario where a pharmaceutical company wants to test a new experimental antipsychotic drug with a group of subjects who suffer from severe schizophrenia. Or to test a new experimental antidepressant with a group of subjects who are seriously, clinically depressed… you can fill in other examples for yourself.

Pharmaceutical Testing

To what extent can we be sure that the consent of these mentally ill patients to partake in such a drug experiment is fully voluntary, well-informed, and understanding all the risks?

The answer is that probably, we cannot always be sure. Meaning that when it comes to doing drug or other therapy experiments in the mental health sphere, researchers may sometimes have to make a difficult choice.

They can either conduct the experiment with less ill, clearly consenting but also less suitable subjects. Or they can introduce, explain and conduct the experiment as best as possible with more targeted mentally ill subjects: this may not fully conform to the “understanding consent” clause of the Nuremberg Code.

Based on my own informal contacts with both academics and mental patients, my personal impression is that when it comes to using fully consenting human subjects in mental health research experiments, the Nuremberg Code is sometimes interpreted more in a liberal than in a literal way.

If this is a good or a bad thing, needs to remain a continuing point of debate.


1840: Richard von Krafft-Ebing

August 14, 1840 – Birth date of German-Austrian psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing, who would become the first widely influential sexologist with a focus on deviant behavior.

Richard von Krafft-Ebing

He first worked as a psychiatrist in various asylums and clinics (and founded a successful clinic of his own, that attracted many high-class patients). In 1873 he became a psychiatry professor at the university of Graz, and later in Vienna. In several of his books he made extensive use of patient case studies.

The work that made Krafft-Ebing internationally famous was his 1886 Psychopathia Sexualis: eine Klinisch-Forensische Studie (“Sexual Psychopathy: A Clinical-Forensic Study”).

In this book he extensively studied and interpreted what he himself considered “misdirected” sexual behavior such as obsessive masturbation, homosexuality, fetishism, sadism, masochism and pedophilia.

The book was intended for professionals such as psychiatrists and judges. Some parts of it were written in Latin, with the purpose to make explicit contents less accessible to the general public.

View on Homosexuality

Krafft-Ebing’s view on homosexuality offers a good example of his ideas and opinions. Because he was conservative enough to consider procreation the only true function of healthy sexual behavior, he still classified homosexuality as one of those “misdirected”, perverse forms of sexual behavior.

But unlike many of his contemporaries, he did not view homosexuality as a vice, as a consequence of immorality. Rather, he thought that it was a mental illness caused by some biological-neurological “inversion” in the brain during the fetal stage of physical development.

Although he maintained that it called for psychiatric treatment, his defining it as some kind of brain illness also implied that one could not really blame homosexuals for their being mentally ill.

In other words, this led Krafft-Ebing to defend the modern opinion that legally, homosexual behavior could and should not be considered a crime (as was still customary at his time).

Richard von Krafft-Ebing

In spite of his own implicit conservative assumptions, Krafft-Ebing’s work had a great influence. It stimulated later psychiatrists and sexologists to give more systematic attention to the huge variations in all kinds of human sexual behavior.

Krafft-Ebing died in 1902 at the age of 62.



1822: Lord Castlereagh

August 12, 1822 – Suicide of Robert Stewart, Lord Castlereagh (53) who was at that time Britain’s Foreign Secretary.

Long-term depression and work stress may have contributed to his death. But judging from the account I will give you below, in his last days he probably suffered from some kind of acute psychosis. His suicide shocked the country.

Lord Castlereagh (1810)

As a prominent politician, Castlereagh had played an important role in the war against Napoleon and the subsequent peace efforts. But he also was very unpopular with large parts of the British population because of his involvement with very conservative, even repressive government policies. For more about all this see his Wikipedia page; here I will concentrate on his psychosis and death.

Castlereagh already had a reputation for his at times extreme reactions; in 1809 he had temporarily given up his government position after having challenged a political opponent to a duel with pistols (in which he had wounded the other).

At the time of his death he was still very successful in running Britain’s foreign affairs. In the months before his death however, his personal behavior gradually became more erratic. Eventually, he visited the King to tell him an agitated, rambling, paranoid, and completely untrue persecution story (with elements such as a blackmailer accusing him of homosexuality, and the police being after him).

A Detailed Account

Here is how a popular biography, printed in 1823, related the story of Castlereagh’s paranoid behavior up to his suicide in full detail.

It is interesting because it also shows how the Lord’s physician tried to address his patient’s mental disturbance: by calling in a “cutter” for bloodletting; by advising rest and a simple diet; and by prescribing inadequate medication such as laxatives.

[...] still no one apprehended that the noble Marquis’s mind was in any way affected. His Majesty was the first to communicate the fear and suspicion that a change had taken place; that caution was requisite; that danger otherwise might result. On the Friday, (August 9. 1822) preparatory to his Majesty’s departure for Scotland, in the course of that audience, his Majesty was surprised and alarmed, at the incoherent manner in which Lord Londonderry conversed; and after the noble Lord’s departure, it is stated, that the King wrote to Lord Liverpool, mentioning that the Marquis of Londonderry had just been with him, and that he had talked in a very remarkable manner; that his Majesty felt alarmed on his Lordship’s account; and that it would be advisable to take becoming precautions to have the opportunity of watching his Lordship’s conduct. His Majesty further urged the necessity of at once having medical advice; but if possible, without letting his Lordship know that his demeanour had been the subject of any remark.
On the Marquis of Londonderry’s arrival at his house in St. James’s Square, his lady and several persons in his establishment noticed in his Lordship a singular incoherence of look, and great agitation of mind. Dr. Bankhead, who had been for many years his Lordship’s physician, was immediately sent for. He found his illustrious patient labouring under a considerable depression of spirits, and complaining of an oppressive sensation in the head. Dr. Bankhead recommended that he should be cupped, and waited until the cupper arrived, by whom seven ounces of blood were taken from the back of his Lordship’s neck. This evidently relieved him; and Dr. Bankhead suggested the propriety of his taking repose on the sofa for half an hour, before he set out for North Cray, whither he was on the eve of departure.
With this advice the noble Lord complied, and became much more composed. He was attended by his lady with the most affectionate solicitude, and by her persuasion took some tea. Dr. Bankhead then gave him some aperient medicine, desiring that he would take it in the morning, and keep himself cool and quiet.
His Lordship, before he took his leave, stated that he felt himself extremely unwell; and stipulated that Dr. Bankhead should go to North Cray the next day, and remain with him until he was better. To this Dr. Bankhead agreed, and they parted, the Marquis and his lady setting out for his seat.
On Saturday evening, Dr. Bankhead, in pursuance of his promise, proceeded to North Cray: he arrived about seven o’clock, and was immediately shown into the Marquis’s room. He found him in bed; but from the manner in which he addressed him on his approach, he at once saw that he was labouring under a serious nervous attack. He endeavoured to compose his mind, and remained with him the better part of the night, again giving him some cooling medicine, and confining his diet to food of the simplest character.
The whole of the next day his Lordship continued in bed; but again evinced such a waywardness of imagination, and seemed to be labouring under such extraordinary delusions, that it was deemed expedient to remove from his reach every thing by which he might do himself bodily mischief. His Lordship frequently expressed apprehensions that he was the object of some dreadful conspiracy; and even when he saw Dr. Bankhead and his amiable Marchioness talking together, he exclaimed, that he was sure they were plotting some mischief against him. His manner too, which had been usually kind and indulgent, became harsh and severe.
He grew petulant and impatient; still the physician saw no ground for serious apprehension, and did not deem it necessary to call in additional advice. He attributed his Lordship’s disease to the great anxiety and fatigue incident to his very irksome office, and hoped that a little quiet would restore him to his accustomed vigour of mind and constitution. He remained with his Lordship until a late hour on Sunday night, and observed with pleasure, that his conversation became more rational; at length he left him with the Marchioness, and retired to an adjoining room.
In the morning, the Marquis, after having had some sleep, awoke suddenly, and rang the bell; the Marchioness’s maid answered it; when he asked her what she wanted in the room, apparently forgetting that he had summoned her. The Marchioness then said, that his Lordship wanted breakfast, and breakfast was accordingly brought. He found fault with it, and said it was not fit for him, although precisely the same as usual. At half-past seven he rang again, and desired that Dr. Bankhead might be sent to him. The Marchioness then quitted the room, and entered her own dressing-room. At this moment the servant retired, and went to apprise Dr. B. of his Lordship’s desire. Dr. B. said he was ready to attend immediately.
The servant then went back to see that her mistress had retired; and at that moment, while she stood in the passage, the Marquis opened the door, and rushed by her into his dressing-room. He was attired only in his dressing-gown. She was alarmed, and called for Dr. B., who rushed to the spot. She said her lord had gone into his dressing-room, and Dr. B. hastened forward; when, at the moment he reached the door, he saw the Marquis with his front towards the window, and his face towards the ceiling; and his right arm also seemed to be raised. Without turning round, he exclaimed, as if conscious who was approaching, having in feet been apprised of it by the previous announcement of the servant, “Bankhead, let me fall upon your arm: it is all over!” This was all he said.
Castlereagh's Suicide, impression by George Cruikshank
The Doctor ran forward, and caught him on his arm; but, unable to sustain his weight, let him fall to the ground. Life, however, was almost instantaneously extinct, and a torrent of blood rushed from a wound in his neck. On further investigation, Dr. B. found a small clasp-knife, with a white handle, and a curved blade of about two inches in length, clenched in his right hand, with which it appeared that he had just inflicted the fatal wound. The carotid artery, or jugular vein, was completely divided, and with anatomical precision; for the extent of the external orifice did not exceed an inch in width, while the depth was two inches. The most expert surgeon, if endeavouring to extinguish human life with the utmost promptitude, could not have effected the object more scientifically.
Dr. Bankhead instantly apprised the Marchioness of the event, and she endeavoured to fly to the body, but was prevented by the Doctor. Lady Suffield, her ladyship’s sister, as well as Miss Fitzroy, and Miss Napier, who were in the house, were soon called to her assistance; but a considerable time elapsed before she could be pacified, and then no power of persuasion or entreaty could induce her to go beyond the adjoining room; where, throwing herself upon the bed, she remained for many hours in a state of uncontrollable grief, which was only interrupted by frequent groundless expressions of self-accusation.
[...] Amidst all the confusion naturally attendant upon such a scene, it is surprising that the details did not more readily obtain publicity; but up to a late hour the next morning, we have been assured, the nearest neighbours remained in ignorance of the true character of the misfortune which had occurred. The servants were prudently charged to secrecy; and we believe not one, from the highest to the lowest, betrayed their trust.
When the fact was divulged in all the public offices, the consternation was excessive.

Lord Castlereagh (1817)


As said, nationwide the shock was great. After a formal inquest had established that Castlereagh had killed himself in a fit of insanity and therefore was not responsible for his own death, he was buried with full honors in Westminster Abbey. This irked some political opponents who accused the government of class justice, a cover-up, elitism. After all, at that time, suicide formally was still a crime in English law and this even implied forbidding a Christian burial.

The accusation of class justice was not entirely unfounded. Since long, it had already been quite common for members of the upper class to be excused in some way after a suicide. At the same time, more common people sometimes still got an ignominious burial after a suicide. For an example, see my story about Abel Griffiths.

In 1823 the British law was changed to allow all suicide victims to be buried in consecrated ground.

Due to Castlereagh’s political unpopularity, the reactions to his death were very mixed anyway. Some reactions were downright vicious: Byron wrote a little poem inviting people to piss on Castlereagh’s grave. For more, see this blog post: Posterity will ne’er survey, a nobler grave than this… Stop, traveller, and piss!, Lord Castlereagh’s funeral, 1822 (at the Print Shop Window blog about the history of English political satire).

Some very interesting personal correspondence about Castlereagh’s illness and death (including letters to and from his physician Dr. Bankhead, the latter describing his diagnosis) can be read in full in The Wellington Connection: Lord Londonderry, posted at the Number One London blog.

Meanwhile, just like today after a suicide sometimes the psychiatrist will be blamed for neglect, this very sentiment was also present after Castlereagh’s death.

Henry Brougham, a Member of Parliament, wrote in a letter that same week: “By the way, I hope to live to see medical men like Bankhead tried for manslaughter, at the least. What think you of removing things from poor C., and then leaving him alone, even for 5 minutes?” But as far as I know, Bankhead was never asked to justify his actions.


  • Titles: Castlereagh officially was not just Viscount Castlereagh, but since 1821 also his father’s successor as Marquess of Londonderry.
  • Both Castlereagh portraits are by painter Thomas Lawrence (1769-1830). The first one was made in 1810, source: the London National Portrait Gallery. The second one was painted in 1817, source: the British Royal Collection e-Gallery.
  • The detailed report of Castlereagh’s insanity and suicide is from his biography, as printed the year after his death in The Annual Biography And Obituary For The Year 1823, Vol. VII. This book is online, digitized by Google Books.
  • The drawing that shows the moment when Castlereagh killed himself was made the same year by illustrator George Cruikshank (1792-1878).
  • The quote of MP Henry Brougham about Dr. Bankhead having neglected his patient is from a letter in The Creevey Papers at the Lord Byron And His Times online documentary collection.


1852: Lincolnshire County Asylum

August 9, 1852 – Opening of the Lincolnshire County Asylum at Bracebridge Heath, a village near the city of Lincoln in England. It was one of those many large asylums built in the mid-19th century to improve the care for the mentally ill (especially the poor among them).

Asylum Corridor?Impression of an asylum corridor? See footnote below…

Here is how a county directory described this one in 1889:

“The County Lunatic Asylum is situated at Bracebridge, near Lincoln, on an eminence, on the high road to Sleaford; it is a plain building, erected in 1852, in the Italian style, and had room for 250 patients, but has since that date been considerably enlarged, and will now hold upwards of 680 patients.
    The grounds belonging to and occupied by the asylum consist of 120 acres, cultivated chiefly by the spade husbandry of the inmates. The sewage is disposed of by irrigation over ten acres of land about a mile from the asylum, quite inoffensively and profitably. The recreation grounds, which are tastefully laid out, with flower beds, shrubs and trees, occupy about six acres.”

The asylum was continually expanded, and also renamed a few times. Like many such institutions, it had its own chapel and its own cemetery: even after death, inmates did not need to leave the grounds…

Renamed St. John’s Hospital in 1961, in 1977 it still had room for 950 patients. By then however, changes had already set in. Since the 1960s better medication and therapies, and the rise of community-oriented mental health care instead of hospitalization, began to make most old asylums obsolete. This Bracebridge asylum was closed in 1989.

Lincolnshire County Asylum

The photo above shows a part of the still-standing original main building.

To give you a clear impression of the huge scale of these Victorian asylums, let me also show you an aerial photo of the entire complex. It was taken about 1980, shortly before the whole was closed down and partially demolished.

Lincolnshire County Asylum

Ghost Hunters

This Lincolnshire County Asylum (or by its later name, St. John’s Hospital) was in all respects just a typical, ordinary old asylum.

But it deserves a special mention because its main 1852 building was not torn down after the 1989 closure, its historical status preventing demolition of this part of the complex. Several developers in a row came up with ambitious plans to convert it into an apartment building, but so far little has been done.

In the meantime, the slowly decaying asylum building (with its floors rotting away) became very popular with photographers looking for the special, haunted atmosphere of derelict buildings. For urban explorers and ghost hunters alike, it became a prime location.

I will not reproduce copyrighted material here. Instead here are some links to sites that each offer a fascinating series of photos showing the exterior and especially the decaying interior of this old Lincolnshire County Asylum building:

Go take a look!


  • The 19th century engraving of (perhaps) an asylum corridor is certainly not showing this Lincolnshire asylum. If it shows an asylum, it was not one for the poor.
    But… if you go through the photo reports I linked to, you will see that the Lincoln County Asylum building has a big corridor that was strikingly similar to the one in this old engraving.
  • The 1889 description quote is from Andrew Roberts’ online Index of English and Welsh Lunatic Asylums and Mental Hospitals.
  • The aerial photo of the asylum complex is from the Heritage Connect Lincoln website.


1809: Alfred Tennyson

August 6, 1809 – Birth date of Alfred Tennyson, who would become by far the most popular poet of Victorian England. For decades (since 1850) he was Britain’s official Poet Laureate. His work still is popular today.

Alfred Tennyson

Depression Background

Tennyson came from a family that was known for epilepsy and mental problems.

His father (who may have had bipolar disorder) suffered from depressions frequently. Tennyson himself and at least five of his brothers and sisters had to cope with the very same problem. One of his brothers was in an insane asylum most of his life, another had a drugs addiction, a third one was institutionalized because of alcoholism, and almost all eleven children had a serious mental breakdown at least once.

So it’s not strange that especially in the first half of his life Alfred thought that he had inherited epilepsy and depression from his father, and that sometimes he was very afraid he would be going mad or become an addict himself.

Tennyson’s frequent deep depressions were clearly reflected in much of his poetry; some consider him one of the most melancholic English poets. But he never succumbed to his affliction: he would die peacefully in 1892, at the age of 83, after a productive and very successful life.


Probably the most-quoted Tennyson phrase is: “‘Tis better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all.” But another quote is a much better summary of his life philosophy: “I must lose myself in action, lest I wither in despair.

Alfred Tennyson (bust)

Here are a few lines from Tennyson’s very long 1850 poem In Memoriam A.H.H., written out of grief over the premature 1833 death of his close friend Arthur Henry Hallam:

So runs my dream, but what am I?
An infant crying in the night
An infant crying for the light
And with no language but a cry.

Queen Victoria was known to have found comfort in the sadness of this poem when mourning the death of her beloved husband Prince Alfred (1861). The next year, she asked to meet Tennyson and in 1884 she made him a baron: the first lordship ever given to someone for his poetry.

Or shall we say he earned it because he managed to turn his depressions into something of beauty?



1980: Pekka Pöyry

August 4, 1980 – Death of Pekka Pöyry. Who?

Sometimes I have this crazy, impossible fantasy of paying my respects to every single one of the millions of people who in the course of human history fell victim to the lonely fight with mental illness. Sometimes I dream of pulling them all out of the simmering cauldron of oblivion, one by one, to name each of them here – to make sure that none of them will ever be completely forgotten.

It cannot be done, of course. But at least once in a while I can briefly bring someone back into the light you probably never heard of. Unless (in this case) you happen to be from Finland, and you were already around in the 1970s, and not averse to jazzy sounds.

A Saxophonist

Pekka Pöyry

Pekka Pöyry (full name Pekka Juhani Pöyry) was a Finnish law student who in 1966 became a professional jazz musician. Inspired by American examples, first of all Charlie Parker, he became a great saxophonist (also playing the flute). He formed his own quartet, later quintet, and for a while became well known all over Europe.

In the 1970s, Pöyry gradually shifted from pure jazz to the then modern jazz-rock. He played in several bands; the most successful being Tasavallan Presidentti and Wigwam.

But he suffered all his life from what back then was still called “manic depression”: bipolar disorder. In the 1970s lithium, which can sometimes be fairly effective in cases of bipolarity, was not yet as commonly prescribed as it is today. I don’t know if he ever got such medication.

Pekka Pöyry

On August 4, 1980, at the age of 40, Pöyry lost his final battle. He killed himself.

Today he is largely forgotten, although his name lives on in the Finnish Pekka Pöyry Award, given to promising young saxophonists.


Evidently, the best way to commemorate him here is to let you hear him.

Here is the song Erottamattomat, recorded in 1980 shortly before his suicide (it was included on a posthumous 1984 album Happy Peter). Especially in the middle part of this song you will hear Pekka Pöyry playing in full glory:

Cover of album Happy Peter

Pekka Pöyry – Erottamattomat


2006: A Drug to Stop Smoking

August 1, 2006 – This day, pharmaceutical company Pfizer began selling the stop-smoking drug varenicline (brand name Chantix) in the USA. Two months later it also became available in Europe (as Champix).

A Smoker

The new drug could help people to stop smoking because it both reduced the crave for nicotine, and reduced the actual effect of nicotine while smoking. Testing showed it to be more effective than drugs that had been used previously to help people quit smoking (such as the antidepressant bupropion, better known as Wellbutrin).

According to a reliable Dutch-language source, research showed that after three months of using Chantix 4 out of 10 smokers had stopped; after one year 2 out of 10 still did not smoke. So for people trying to quit smoking by using Chantix, in the long run 1 out of 5 appeared to be successful.

Serious Mental Side Effects

In 2008, the American FDA (Food and Drug Administration) noticed that this drug could cause “serious neuropsychiatric symptoms” in the form of depression, suicidal thoughts, and suicidal actions. In July 2009, the FDA required Pfizer to print a “Black Box” on Chantix packages to clearly warn for this side effect.

Chantix is still being promoted actively for people who want to stop smoking, but the Pfizer website for health care professionals now includes a clear warning of the risks. They even mention that some Chantix users were reported to have “completed suicide”:

“All patients being treated with CHANTIX should be observed for neuropsychiatric symptoms including changes in behavior, hostility, agitation, depressed mood, and suicide-related events, including ideation, behavior, and attempted suicide. These symptoms, as well as worsening of pre-existing psychiatric illness and completed suicide have been reported in some patients attempting to quit smoking while taking CHANTIX in the post-marketing experience.
   [...] Advise patients and caregivers that the patient should stop taking CHANTIX and contact a healthcare provider immediately if agitation, hostility, depressed mood, or changes in behavior or thinking that are not typical for the patient are observed, or if the patient develops suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior.”

The official Pfizer webpage for consumers offers similar warnings, though perhaps a little less prominently displayed:

[...] “Also tell your doctor about any history of depression or other mental health problems before taking CHANTIX, as these symptoms may worsen while taking CHANTIX.”


To be honest, I’m reminded of an old German saying here: “den Teufel mit Beelzebub austreiben”, expelling the devil by Beelzebub. This applies when you try to combat one evil with an equally bad evil.

devil-and-deathDevil and Death, detail from “Allegory of Law and Grace”,
after a 1530 woodcut by Lucas Cranach the Elder

Unlike most histories presented here, this one is clearly not finished yet.



Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 134 other followers

%d bloggers like this: